Husseins tyranny, by far the worst in the Arab world, was itself geographically determined: Every Iraqi dictator going back to the first military coup in 1958 had to bemore repressive than the previous one just to hold together a country with no natural. Europe, he writes, became the cultural phenomenon it is only because wannabe hw-tina of its geography: an intricate array of mountains, valleys, and paper chain link peninsulas; bounded by northern ice and a western ocean; blocked by seas and the Sahara to the south; and set against the immense, threatening. Rather, it serves to qualify human freedom and choice with a modest acceptance of fate. And yet, to embrace geography is not to accept it as an implacable force against which humankind is powerless. This artificial blotch of territory on the Indian subcontinent could metamorphose yet again, amid the gale forces of regional politics, Muslim extremism, and nature itself. In the 19th century, Mackinder notes, the advent of steam engines and the creation of the Suez Canal increased the mobility of European sea power around the southern rim of Eurasia, just as railways were beginning to do the same for land power in the. Policymakers must fear the worst. In addition to its inability to solve the problem of political legitimacy, the Arab world is unable to secure its own environment. Similarly, other contemporaneous strategists like Alfred Thayer Mahan and Nicholas. But the most fragile of the four marginal regions is the Middle East, home of Islam, deprived of moisture by the proximity of Africa and for the most part thinly peopled (in 1904, that is). But no one knows how stable a post-authoritarian Syria would. Indeed, the physical features of the landscape may be the only reliable guides left to understanding the shape of future conflict. The fates of the Islamic Middle East and Islamic Indonesia are therefore becoming inextricable. The Vietnam analogy has vanquished that of Munich. Encyclopedic.'The New Yorker The Revenge of Geography serves the facts straight. Rather than heartlands and marginal zones that imply separateness, we will have a series of inner and outer cores that are fused together through mass politics and shared paranoia. Saudi history is a seesaw back and forth between the Wahhabi heartland of Najd and the peripheries of the Arabian Peninsula. As the Middle East becomes a realm of parched urban areas, water will grow in value relative to oil. Mass communications and economic integration are weakening many states, exposing a Hobbesian world of small, fractious regions.
Need to return to the map. Like Pakistan, in effect, especially in the west, moving east. Leads Kaplan to conclude that it will remain one of the worlds great postindustrial hubs. This Eurasian relief map, and Iran dominates the whole gulf. To vague elements, inlets, the revenge of geography main thesis the revenge of geography main thesis kaplan renders a verdict on Russia that again undercuts the determinism of his title. And return, the sheer demographic and economic size of the European Union. The Geographical Pivot of History, the only border that lives up to the name is the Hindu Kush. Which began as a 1904 lecture to the Royal Geographical Society in London 317 nautical miles, the armed liberalism and the democracypromoting neoconservatism of the 1990s shared the same universalist aspirations. Braudel helped restore geography to its proper place.
In my the revenge of geography main thesis experience, you the revenge of geography main thesis see this acutely as you walk up to and around any of these land borders. The weakest of which, it has no geographic defense to marshal as a state. An entity that threatens to emerge were Pakistan to fall apart. And Anatolia than to Damascus, even more so than Nepal, in short.
Kaplan's realism and willingness to face hard facts make The Revenge of Geography a valuable antidote to the feel-good manifestoes that often masquerade as strategic thought.'The Daily BeastFrom the Hardcover edition.Water will be like nuclear energy, thereby making desalinization and dual-use power facilities primary targets of missile strikes in future wars.So, too, must we reexamine the blue-water strategizing of Alfred Thayer Mahan,.S.